We will continue the story about curious facts from the life of squids.
These two words most often describe aristocratic persons. We are accustomed to consider it a figurative expression, since the blood of all living things is red, regardless of origin. Red blood makes hemoglobin – a complex protein that can bind with oxygen and carry it through the tissues of the body. The iron contained in hemoglobin and stains the blood.
But in nature, in fact, there are owners of blue blood: these are scorpions, crabs, all cephalopods – squid and octopus. In blue, more precisely, in blue color their blood stains pigment hemocyanin containing copper. Squid and other cephalopods do not have blood vessels; blue blood replaces them. Hemocyanin supplies the internal organs with oxygen and regulates body temperature so that it corresponds to the state of water.
Why are squid deaf
This is a scientifically proven fact. There have been many attempts to create a conditioned reflex of squid in sound signals. Nothing happened, squids perceive only low-frequency sound vibrations, but not by the organ of hearing, but by the change in water pressure. Paradox: in acute vision, excellent orientation in the water, these mollusks can not hear anything. There is no exact explanation for this yet, but the hypothesis exists.
It is known that marine mammals (sperm whales, dolphins) feed mainly on squid. In the 1980s, it was assumed that they emit short but powerful ultrasonic pulses that paralyze and even kill prey. Helpless squid sperm whales just sucked. From this, the researchers concluded that deafness could save the squid from eating if it does not die immediately. This idea is not indisputable, there is an opinion that deafness is a hereditary sign from ancient ancestors of cephalopod mollusks. However, research continues, and perhaps soon we will find out the true cause of the deafness of squid.
Kraken, he’s an architectus, he’s a polypus …
Common Pacific squids are small, maximum 80 cm, and that together with tentacles. But in the oceans come across such giants that it is better not to meet. They are difficult to see, so for a long time scientists considered giant squids to be fabulous heroes of myths. But similar myths have been told by many sailors sailing in many different seas. Here it is worth considering whether there is a real object at the base of the tales.
Even Aristotle wrote that in the Mediterranean there are large animals (in modern sizes up to 2.5 meters), which have many tentacles with suckers.
Scientists called the mysterious giant squid an architecteus. In numerous legends and fishing stories, monsters figured under the name polypus, kraken, pulps.
Giant squids still exist, but they live at great depths, so their way of life is still a mystery, but the structure of their body was studied. Several times these monsters fell into the fishing nets or were cast ashore.
Why big squid big eyes
The size of giant squids reaches 18 meters, while their eyes are “to match”: 27 cm in diameter with a pupil size of 9 cm. The researchers were interested in such sizes, a mathematical model of the sea giants’ vision was created. According to the simulation results, it turns out that to search for tribesmen or to hunt, an eye with a diameter of no more than 10 cm would be enough for him. Now guess who is to blame for the fact that squid has such big eyes?
That’s right, scientists again „suspect“ this sperm whales! The sperm whale hunts for squid in its territory, at great depths, where there is almost no natural light. A huge predator, hitting small fish and other marine life, causes outbreaks of bioluminescence, which the squid’s huge eyes catch at a distance of up to 120 meters.
Ganglia and their benefits
Giant squids rarely fall into the hands of scientists. But in the Sea of Japan and the Kuril Islands, off the coast of China and Korea, a huge amount of Pacific squid (Todarodes pacificus) is caught, and in addition to its obvious nutritional value, many biologically active substances are found that are beneficial to health.
In particular, to create dietary supplements and drugs use the visual ganglia of the Pacific squid (the largest part of its brain). Ganglia are a cluster of nerve cells – the nerve node. Russian scientists have developed a technology for producing all the useful substances from the ganglia – a method of enzymatic hydrolysis.
The enzymatic hydrolyzate of the nerve ganglia of squid consists of 84% of low molecular weight peptides and 13% of free amino acids . The complex of active substances also includes specific valuable fatty compounds of the nervous tissue (cholinesterase enzyme), vitamins and minerals. Biologically active substances of the ganglia are molecular nutrition for brain cells, the central and peripheral nervous system.
Low molecular weight peptides:
- increase the body’s resistance to infectious diseases of a bacterial and viral nature,
- correct immunodeficiency states caused by aging of the body, poisoning, frostbite, stress, antibiotic treatment, malnutrition, exposure to radiation and other harmful factors
- make it easier to handle stress
- strengthen the immune system
- improve cerebral circulation
- used to relieve cancer patients with chemotherapy
- widely used in medical practice during seasonal outbreaks of ARVI to increase the body’s resistance.
Free amino acids:
- provide metabolic processes
- activate the body detoxification process
- possess antidepressant activity, improve memory
- reduce fatigue, improve performance
- participate in the formation of collagen and elastin, contribute to the restoration of skin and bone tissue, rapid healing of wounds.