Which of you have heard the term triterpene saponins or glycosides? With confidence we can say that such units. And even fewer people can explain the meaning of this term.
Triterpenic saponins are widely distributed in the plant world. Their important role in the regulation of plant life, in particular, as growth stimulants and increasing the stress tolerance of plants to unfavorable conditions
The activity of triterpene glycosides (TG) has also been established with respect to a whole range of pathogenic fungi, which gives some hope for creating effective and safe preparations based on them. There are also encouraging data on lipid-lowering (cholesterol reduction) TG activity, on the possibility of using them in cosmetology and in treating a number of skin diseases. Restrictions to the use of plant TG are difficulties in isolating them from plants.
Receiving TG is possible not only on the basis of plant materials. Developed and actively used methods for the selection of TG from marine organisms. At the same time, the most promising object for their production are holothurians: trepang and cucumaria. A distinctive feature of sea cucumbers is the presence of biologically active substances in them – triterpene glycosides, characteristic mainly of plants. Glycoside holothurians have characteristic features of the chemical structure that distinguish them from all known plant compounds of this class.
Due to adaptive diversity to environmental factors, a number of marine animals have developed the ability to produce unique cellular metabolites with the highest biological activity. And, in many respects, it concerns holothurians.
Holothuria is an extraordinary animal, visually resembling a plant. This animal is referred to the class of invertebrates, the type of echinoderms. These sea creatures have many names – sea cucumber, sea cucumber, sea ginseng.
The area of distribution of sea cucumbers is quite wide and includes almost all the seas, with the exception of the Caspian and Baltic. They are most widely represented in the Pacific region, in particular in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. Holothurians can settle in shallow waters as well as in deep-sea basins. Their main refuge are coral reefs and stony vegetation overgrown with vegetation. The sizes of holothurians are very diverse; meet individuals from 0.5 cm to several meters. Color holothurians depends on their habitat.
Holothurians are benthic animals and feel good even at very great depths. A characteristic feature of the holothurians is a high degree of regenerative capabilities. Thus, two separate organisms can be formed from an individual cut into two halves. The average life expectancy of the holothurians is 5-10 years.
Of greatest interest, as a source of TG, is the Far Eastern trepang and Cucumaria Japanese.
There are several types of TG from holothurians, such as: cucumarioside, cucumarioside A2-2, frondose A and holotoxin A1. A number of studies have shown a pronounced immunomodulatory effect of these substances on the mammalian organism.
A number of works were also performed proving the importance of TG for the human body due to fungicidal, antimicrobial actions, the ability to lower blood pressure, immunomodulating and radioprotective activity (Savvateeva, 1984; Savvateeva, 1987; Kalinin et al., 1994; Lebskaya et al 1998a; Lebskaya et al., 1998b; Lebskaya et al., 2000b).
No less important feature of TG is their high antioxidant (antioxidant) activity. Currently, oxidative stress or the formation of free radicals in the body is considered as one of the leading factors in the development of pathological processes and aging, and, therefore, antioxidants – as a means of prevention.
Such a representative of sea cucumbers, as cucumaria, is a rich source of carotenoids with pronounced antioxidant properties. By their structure, carotenoids belong to the TG.
Currently, the TG from the holothurians is actively investigated by the scientific community. Interest in these compounds is caused by the diverse biological activity of the glycosides of holothurians. Hemolytic and ichthyotoxic, antifungal and antitumor effects have been established for them, and in recent years, immunostimulatory properties have been discovered. As immunomodulators, TG from cucucary have an effective effect on the formation of humoral and cellular immunity, that is, they are effective against both viral and microbial and fungal infections. There are data demonstrating the ability of TG to have an antitumor effect, which is manifested in the inhibition of tumor growth.
The normalizing effect of TG on the endocrine and cardiovascular systems is also noteworthy, which is especially important in the context of the constant growth of cardiovascular pathology and type 2 diabetes, which have now become pandemic.
And, of course, it is impossible not to say about the pronounced effect of TG on the adaptogenic and reproductive abilities of the human body. In this case, the stimulating effect of TG does not lead to the depletion of the biological reserves of the body, but, on the contrary, is the source of their replenishment.
As for the normalizing effect of TG on male health indicators, it is directly related to both normalization of metabolic processes, improvement of blood vessels and anti-stress effects, which together provide a physiological recovery without causing dangerous vascular reactions characteristic of a number of drugs.
Given the above possibilities of the beneficial effects of TG on the human body, it is important to dwell on the sources of their production. It is not a secret that fresh cucumber and fresh cucumber is practically inaccessible to middle belt residents and all those who do not live on the coast; bioactive supplements based on sea cucumber and cucumaria and preserving their natural properties are a possibility of obtaining
Currently, in Russia, products based on hydrobionts are represented by the company PharOschchen Lab., Located in the town of Partizansk, Primorsky Krai, working on raw materials mined in the ecologically clean regions of the Okhotsk and Japanese seas.